## 1. Controlling FBlocks

Controlling is a core application for embedded control. Hence some sources of controlling algorithm are part of the emC sources. It is the experience for many years. Some experience in Simulink are also present.

The controlling FBlocks are the core algorithm in C which run in Simulink blocks too.

It is part of `emC/Ctrl/*`

## 2. T1_Ctrl

The header `emC/Ctrl/T1_Ctrl_emC`

contains some basic smoothing blocks in float and integer.

Because this header may always included, in controlling algorithm T1 Blocks are often used, here is a definition of

#define NOM_i16_Ctrl_emC 27720

which is the nominal value for `1.0`

in integer 16-bit resolution. This value allow an overdrive with 118% which is sufficient for proper algorithm for limitation. It is a number which can be divided by 1 … 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 27, 28, 30, 33, 35, 36, ,40, 42, 44, 45, 50, 60, etc. It may be a point of interest for some algorithm.

## 3. Angle_Ctrl_emC

The basic idea for the angle is: -180° … 0 … +179.999° are mapped to -32768 … 0 … 32767 in integer range.

With this approach the angle is defined in this range. A swinging around 179 ... -179° is not a problem if differences are used (without overflow handling as usual in C/+, also in Java etc.).

Conversion routines between rad and `int16`

, `int32`

angle representation are a simple conversion to/from float and multiplication, fast if the processor supports float.

Especially a smoothing block for angle values prevent the problem of swinging around the 180° value, the smoothing works well.

## 4. PIDi_Ctrl_emC, PIDf_Ctrl_emC

A PID control needs a longer integrator value. The floating variant is would need double arithmetic if float should be used anytime. A better solution is using int32 for the integrator (may be sufficient enough). It enhances the integral part by 8 binary digits, about 2..3 decimal digits.

Often an integer variant of the controller is sufficient. The inputs and outputs are 16 bit width. The integrator has 32 bit, recommended also for poor 16 bit processors.

## 5. Orthogonal Oscillator, Band pass

The so named '*Orthogonal Oscillator*' is a FBlock consist of two integrator which is a band pass. It is the same (from differential form) as a L-C-R-combination. With the possibility of detecting the phase difference between input and output signal the abbreviation to the resonance frequency and a proper adjusting can be detected. The '*Orthogonal Oscillator*' is a proper basic FBlock especially for detecting the first harmonics but also more harmonics in an oscillation signal (alternate current, field oriented control).

## 6. Wave Manager

This blocks can smooth signals by a smoothing mean value and access to values in the past. Especially the problem of drifting in time of the mean value by small inaccuracy of the last bits of floating values is solved.

## 7. Calculate Expression

It is an interpreter for any mathematic calculation. It runs fast enough for free applications.

The formula can be given by String expressions, which are parsed.